Breast Cancer starts in breast tissue and happens when cells in the breast change and grow out of control. The cells usually form a tumor. It is the most common cancer in women worldwide.

Types of Breast Cancer:
Ductal Carcinoma: Arises in the duct cells, is the most common types of cancer.
Lobular Carcinoma: Develops in the lobules and may affect both breasts.
Rare Types: Inflammatory breast cancer and Paget’s disease of the breast.

Causes:
Breast cancer is primarily attributed to changes in the DNA, though exact causes remain unknown. Factors such as inherited genetic alterations, lifestyle, and environment contributes.

Genetic Risk Factors:
Mutations in genes like BRCA1 and BRCA2 significantly elevate the risk of breast cancer.

Signs & Symptoms:
New lump in or near the breast.
Changes in breast size or shape.
Breast pain.Nipple discharge other than milk.
Skin changes like redness, scaliness, or swelling.

Treatment Options:
Mastectomy Surgery: Removal of the entire breast.
Lumpectomy Surgery: Excision of the tumor and surrounding tissue, preserving the breast.
Adjuvant Therapies: Including radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, targeted therapy, and immunotherapy.

Prevention:
Maintain Healthy Weight: Obesity is linked to increased breast cancer risk.
Moderate Alcohol Consumption: having more than two drinks per day increase risk of cancer.
Regular Exercise: Engage in physical activity for overall health and risk reduction.

Breast Cancer Screening:
Mammograms: Detect tumors when they are too small to be felt. Annual screening recommended for women aged 40 and above, aiding in early detection.
Self-Examinations: Examining your breasts regularly helps to find tumors.

Preventive Measures for High-Risk Individuals:
You may have an increased risk of breast cancer due to hereditary factors. Like, if your parent has a BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene mutation.

If so, preventive measure includes: Prophylactic Mastectomy – surgical removal of a breast preventively. Example Angelina Jolie. 
Chemoprophylaxis: Medications such as Tamoxifen to be taken preventively.

Awareness surrounding breast cancer is incredibly important as early detection, often through screening, can catch the disease when it is most treatable. 

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