Breast Cancer starts in breast tissue and happens when cells in the breast change and grow out of control. The cells usually form a tumor. It is the most common cancer in women worldwide.

Types of Breast Cancer:
Ductal Carcinoma: Arises in the duct cells, is the most common types of cancer.
Lobular Carcinoma: Develops in the lobules and may affect both breasts.
Rare Types: Inflammatory breast cancer and Paget’s disease of the breast.

Breast cancer is primarily attributed to changes in the DNA, though exact causes remain unknown. Factors such as inherited genetic alterations, lifestyle, and environment contributes.

Genetic Risk Factors:
Mutations in genes like BRCA1 and BRCA2 significantly elevate the risk of breast cancer.

Signs & Symptoms:
New lump in or near the breast.
Changes in breast size or shape.
Breast pain.Nipple discharge other than milk.
Skin changes like redness, scaliness, or swelling.

Treatment Options:
Mastectomy Surgery: Removal of the entire breast.
Lumpectomy Surgery: Excision of the tumor and surrounding tissue, preserving the breast.
Adjuvant Therapies: Including radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, targeted therapy, and immunotherapy.

Maintain Healthy Weight: Obesity is linked to increased breast cancer risk.
Moderate Alcohol Consumption: having more than two drinks per day increase risk of cancer.
Regular Exercise: Engage in physical activity for overall health and risk reduction.

Breast Cancer Screening:
Mammograms: Detect tumors when they are too small to be felt. Annual screening recommended for women aged 40 and above, aiding in early detection.
Self-Examinations: Examining your breasts regularly helps to find tumors.

Preventive Measures for High-Risk Individuals:
You may have an increased risk of breast cancer due to hereditary factors. Like, if your parent has a BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene mutation.

If so, preventive measure includes: Prophylactic Mastectomy – surgical removal of a breast preventively. Example Angelina Jolie. 
Chemoprophylaxis: Medications such as Tamoxifen to be taken preventively.

Awareness surrounding breast cancer is incredibly important as early detection, often through screening, can catch the disease when it is most treatable. 

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