Sexually Transmitted Infections (S.T.I) and Sexually Transmitted Diseases (S.T.D):
S.T.I & S.T.D are terms often used interchangeably, but they have distinct meanings. S.T.I are caused by bacteria, viruses or parasites. The term “disease” is used when the infection leads to noticeable clinical symptoms or medical complications.

Symptoms may include pain during sexual activity or urination, bumps or rashes on or around sexual organs, unusual discharge or bleeding, painful or swollen testicles, itchiness in or around the vagina, and other signs like fever or weight loss.

Types of S.T.D include:
Chlamydia: A common bacterial infection transmitted through sexual contact; it can lead to genital and urinary tract complications if left untreated.
Genital Herpes: A viral infection causes painful sores in the genital and anal areas; antiviral medications help manage symptoms.
Genital Warts: Caused by certain strains of the human papillomavirus (HPV), genital warts are growths on the genital and anal areas.
Gonorrhea (Clap): A bacterial infection affecting the genital, rectal, and throat areas, with symptoms including painful urination.
Hepatitis B: A viral infection affecting the liver; it can be sexually transmitted and may lead to chronic liver disease; vaccination is available for prevention.

HIV/AIDS: This affects the immune system; antiretroviral therapy helps manage the virus.
Human Papillomavirus (HPV): A common virus causing genital warts and contributing to cervical cancer; vaccines are available.
Syphilis: A bacterial infection that progresses through stages, causing sores, rashes, and organ damage; antibiotics are the primary treatment.
Vaginitis: Refers to inflammation of the vagina, often caused by infections, bacteria, or yeast.


  1. Have an open discussion about sexual history with a new partner before engaging in any sexual activity, and decide what you’re each comfortable with.
  2. Get tested regularly for STIs, especially if you have a new or multiple partners. Ask partners to do the same. 3. Use condoms and dental dams consistently and correctly.
  3. Consider getting vaccinated for HPV and hepatitis B.

S.T.D pose significant health risks, but with awareness, preventive measures, and timely medical intervention, their impact can be minimized. Remember, early detection and treatment are key in managing S.T.D effectively. 

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